By the presence of carbon dioxide. We are talking about bubbles, which are the essence of CO 2 , formed during fermentation and retained in the bottle before serving the wine. It happens:
- Sparkling wine is one in which the carbon dioxide formed during fermentation has been stored and bottled, differ in the amount of carbon dioxide collected. A full-bodied sparkling (where there are many bubbles, almost like in champagne) is usually called vino spumante, and where there are fewer of them.
- Quiet – in which all the carbon dioxide left the wine before it was bottled.
Wine by grape variety
Wine is divided into mono-varietal and blended, made from a blend (a mixture of varieties). And there is no reason to say that a page is better than a hood or vice versa. The fact is that the quality and dignity of wine are determined not only by the variety but also by a bunch of other factors
Nevertheless, the indication of the variety on the label makes the clearer and closer to the consumer. And if a winemaker has a reason to believe that he successfully embodies a particular variety, then he will indicate it on the label. Especially if it is the flagship variety for its country. Or is this variety one of the popular international varieties (merlot, chardonnay, cabernet sauvignon, etc.), and the winemaker has nothing more to boast about …
Difficulties begin for an untrained wine lover when he picks up a bottle of classified wine. On his label, the variety is rarely indicated. Because in the tradition of high winemaking, it is generally accepted that terroir decides everything. Including, from which variety or a mixture of varieties to produce on a given piece of land. On the label, the term “terroir” takes shape, and “that says it all.”
A few words about the sparkling drink
Sparkling are called wines that contain carbon dioxide, created using a special technology. Their production is subdivided into 4 methods:
1. Carbonation. In the manufacture of low-quality drinks, the artificial introduction of CO 2 is used.
2. The method, where the completion of the primary fermentation of alcohol takes place not in the barrel, but in the bottle, is called rural.
3. If the secondary decomposition of organic substances occurs in acratophores (special tanks made of metal), then production takes place according to the Sharma method.
4. The classic method is when the re-fermentation process takes place in a bottle.
It is also worth mentioning that there are two distinct categories of sparkling: pearl and sparkling. The former contains the smallest amount of carbon dioxide, while the latter has a weak pressure in the bottle and a low strength (7%).
By sugar and alcohol content
The alcohol content is necessarily marked on the label as a percentage.
Sugar and alcohol in the composition can be both natural and additionally introduced at the production stage. The natural strength and sweetness of the drink depend on the ripeness of the grape berry and sugar content. Thus, the more the grape sugar is fermented, the stronger the wine becomes, but at the same time, the sugar content of the wine decreases.
Fortified wines are those in which alcohol is additionally added. Consider either g / liter or as a percentage.
It is impossible to tell about all varieties in one article, so let’s talk about the oldest and most popular for production. It was here that level classifications by quality categories were recorded.
Table wines. Beverage production can be based on the use of different grape varieties and yields. To ensure a 9% alcohol level, sugar syrup is allowed to be added to the wort. The place of production and the year of the harvest are not indicated on the label.
Due to their lack of expression and personality, they have not earned the attention of critics and sommeliers, and good restaurants will never include them on the menu.
Local belongs to the category of higher quality drinks. The production is based on regulated varieties of berries, the drink must have a certain strength and meet certain organoleptic characteristics. The grapes used for this category are grown in a special area.